- What's new
- Major changes and milestones
- Additional new features
- cc listen API
- cc log level API
- file API
- router API
- vm top API
- vm info API
- vm config volume API
- vm config backchannel API
- vm cdrom API
- vm hotplug API
- vm net API
- host API
- debug API
- clear all API
- help API
- vyatta API
- web API
- vnc API
- .preprocess API
- .env API
- Apropos for .columns, .filter APIs
- QEMU flags
- VLANs file
- Tabbed completion
- Header uniformity
- Readline replacement
- Vanity URL
- Travis Integration
- Auxillary Tools
- Bug fixes
The minimega team is pleased to announce the release of minimega 2.4. This release includes improvements to make experiments more portable, an effort that started in 2.3, and numerous bug fixes. This release contains changes to the existing API which will improve user experience and programmability.
Major changes and milestones
Add plumbing support to minimega and miniccc to facilitate non-networked communication between VMs, processes on guests or hosts, and instances of minimega. See the miniplumber article and presentation for details.
In 2.3, we introduced namespaces as the first step towards more portable
experiments. In 2.4, we have refactored namespaces to be more comprehensive.
minimega is now always in a namespace --
minimega by default. All state
associated with a namespace (e.g. VMs, taps, captures, VNC) is now
automatically cleaned up when it is destroyed.
As part of this refactor, we have made several APIs work properly with
namespaces. Specifically, there is now a separate
vm config per namespace.
vm config clone and
vm config qemu-override now work with namespaces. There
is also a separate
cc instances per namespace (including a
cc filter and
One notable change is that
miniccc_responses are now separated by namespace.
Each namespace includes its own command-and-control server that writes to a
separate directory. This addresses an issue with clients having the same UUIDs
in different namespaces (before, they would have written responses to the same
The scheduler has been vastly improved in this release. In 2.3, we did
round-robin scheduling to distribute VMs across hosts. Now, the scheduler
attempts to load balance based on CPU, memory, or network commit. There are
also two new APIs to fine-tune the scheduler:
vm config schedule and
vm config coschedule. See the namespaces
article for details.
ns API replaces
nsmod to configure the active namespace. See
for more information.
ns run to run a command on all nodes in the namespace.
capture API was rewritten and is now much more stable than before. We
have used it with thousands of captures without crashing.
Added new APIs to configure the snaplen and BPF for new PCAP captures. Added
new APIs to configure ASCII or Raw and compression for new netflow captures.
capture netflow API to use the stored configuration rather
than pass it in the command.
Containers had a VCPUs parameter but no CPU limit was actually enforced. Now,
we use the
cpu cgroup to set a quota on processing time for the container
based on the value of
vm config vcpus.
Additional new features
cc listen API
To support the above changes to
cc, we removed the
-ccport flag and
replaced it with the
cc listen API. This runs on all hosts in the namespace.
cc listen must be run manually if users wish to use a network-based
backchannel for command and control.
cc log level API
Added new API to change miniccc's log level at runtime:
cc log level.
It uses the value of
cc filter to determine which VMs to update.
file delete now supports globs (e.g.
file delete *.qcow).
router <vm> gw API to set the routers default gateway.
vm top API
vm top API to show the memory and CPU resources that VMs and containers
are actively using.
vm info API
bandwidth column to
uptime column for the time since the VM was launched. Added
column for QEMU process for VMs and for init process for containers.
vm config volume API
vm config volume API to specify additional directories to mount into
the container's filesystem.
vm config backchannel API
vm config backchannel to control whether a network-less backchannel is
created for the VM/container or not. Solved an issue where some VMs only
recognized one virtio port.
This defaults to true so existing scripts do not need to change.
vm cdrom API
vm cdrom can now address one or more VMs using the same syntax as
This allows users to add or remove disks for multiple VMs in one command.
Modified the QEMU arguments so that VMs have an empty CD device by default.
This allows users to add a CD to all VMs, not just ones that were launched with
a CD in
vm config cdrom.
vm hotplug API
Similarly to the
vm cdrom API,
vm hotplug now supports addressing one or
more VMs using the syntax from
vm hotplug also now includes two optional parameters: the USB version and USB
serial number. The USB version controls which bus the device is connected to --
either 1.1 or 2.0. The serial number is visible to the VM.
vm hotplug show to
vm hotplug. To limit results to a particular VM,
vm net API
Similarly to the
vm cdrom API,
vm net now supports addressing one or more
VMs using the syntax from
The bridge parameter is now optional and defaults to the bridge that the tap is
already connected to (or
mega_bridge if the tap is disconnected).
Changed the parameter order in order to support the above changes.
Added many new columns to support the scheduler. See
help host for details.
debug goroutine to dump goroutine stack traces to file.
clear all API
clear all API to reset minimega to a vanilla state. Restarting is still
Added support for sub-command help (e.g. `help vnc record`).
Removed deprecated API.
Removed API. See replacement, miniweb.
Changed the default location for reading and writing recordings to the iomeshage directory rather than the current directory.
.preprocess API to disable preprocessor. minimega automatically fetches
files with a
http:// prefix -- this API allows you to disable that
preprocessing. For example,
.preprocess false cc exec curl http://....
.env API to print/update/unset environment variables.
Apropos for .columns, .filter APIs
Added apropos support for
.filter. Users can now uses a
distinct prefix for column names rather than the full column name.
Changed the default video driver from cirrus to std.
minimega now writes out the VLAN mappings to the filesystem.
minimega now completes commands when using the
Added completion for namespace, tap, and bridge names in supporting APIs.
Added environment variable completions.
Updated the headers on several API to make them easier to use with
- file status
- mesh status
- vm hotplug
- vm tag
All column names should now be one word and lowercase.
Replaced the GNU Readline library in minimega with a pure Go implementation, eliminating a C dependency. Users may notice slightly different behaviors between the implementations.
Users can now clone minimega via
redirects to the Github repo.
Added Travis integration to Github. Added new script
check.bash to ensure
source code meets
go vet standards.
Created standalone webserver based on
web API. Added many
new features, see the miniweb article for more
The vmbetter configs included with minimega have been heavily refactored. Specifically, we:
- Added new host config for CARNAC.
- Renamed ccc_host_ovs to ccc_host.
- Added new configs to build images with the dependencies to build minimega.
- Renamed miniccc_virtio to miniccc.
- Deleted protonuke.
- Changed ccc_host to set experiment IP from management IP.
- Set motd throughout.
- Added symbolic links to miniccc and minirouter (so that they copy in automatically from bin/).
The last change means that users no longer have to copy binaries into the overlay directory before building.
Added a busybox-based container filesystem that includes miniccc based on the busybox-based minirouter filesystem (renamed to uminirouterfs).
igor has had a significant overhaul. It now performs scheduling, rather that just reservation. Users specify how many nodes they need and for how long; igor looks through its schedule to find a time when it has enough nodes available and reserves them then. When the reservation starts, igor will copy in the boot files as usual. It can now also reboot nodes automatically when the reservation starts (if desired), and has experimental support to put each reservation in a different Q-in-Q (802.1ad) network segment to avoid network conflicts. Users can also make reservations at a specific time in the future rather than next available, reserve specific nodes rather than the next available, or ask igor to show them some available reservation slots without actually creating a reservation.
Added new tool to modify credentials for a ramdisk image.
Added new tool to automatically generate the `vm config` APIs. This helps keep documentation consistent and simplifies adding new `vm config` APIs.
Added a flag to enable cookie jar for protonuke http and https clients.
Added simple FTP server and client.
Added size query parameter to
image.png to request image of specified size.
protonuke generates the image on the first request and stores it for future
Add IPMI support.
Added recursive mode and new distributed tests.
Added new standalone
ron server that can be used separate from minimega to
provide command-and-control to physical machines. Partially implemented.
minimega now creates
/sys in the
container filesystem if they do not exist. Solved an issue where containers
would fail to start.
bandwidth on VMs
There was a bug where the bandwidth statistics were reversed (Rx and Tx were swapped). Changed to a weighted moving average to show changes in transfer rates faster.
Use tbf instead of netem for rate limiting since netem does not seem to behave correctly between VMs on different hosts. Unfortunately, this means that rate and loss/delay are mutually exclusive now.
In 2.3, miniccc added support to set upstream tags using a UDS. This socket was not properly cleaned up and would prevent miniccc from restarting if the VM reboots. Changed miniccc so that it deletes the UDS if it does not detect that there is an instance on miniccc running.
Fix UUID handler for Windows.
minimega is available in several ways, both as pre-built distributions and source. See the installing guide for more information.
minimega is available as an x86-64 debian package, available here. It is known to work in debian 7 (wheezy) and 8 (testing/jessie) and ubuntu 16.04.
A pre-built, x86-64 distribution is available in a single distributable tarball
It should be sufficient to simply unpack the tarball and run tools from the
bin/ directory directly. Most default paths in minimega, vmbetter, and other
tools are built to be used in this way (i.e.
bin/minimega, which will then
look for the web directory in
Building from source
Source of the entire distribution is available on Github. Follow the directions for cloning or forking minimega on github.com. In order to build minimega, you will need a Go 1.8+ compiler and libpcap headers.